Treaty of Kars (October 13, 1921)

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Agreement signed on October 13, 1921 in Kars with the participation of the RSFSR in Kars, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR and Georgian SSR on the one hand, and Turkey on the other. Agreement states, the Government of the Turkish Grand National Assembly to conclude a treaty of friendship with the participation of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic, inspired by the constant sincere relations and the desire to establish uninterrupted sincere friendship based on the mutual interests of both sides, sharing the principles of brotherhood and self-determination The Government of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Armenia: Askanaz Mravyan, People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs, Pogos Makinzyan, People's Commissar of Internal Affairs. Government of the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan: Behbud Shakhtakhtinski, People's Commissar of State Control. Government of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Georgia: Shalva Eliva, People's Commissar for Naval Affairs, Alexander Svanidze, People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs and People's Commissar for Finance. Government of the Turkish Grand National Assembly: Kazim Garabakir Pasha, Member of Parliament from Edirne, Commander of the Eastern Front, Veli Bey, Member of Parliament from Burdur, Mukhtar Bey, Former Deputy Secretary of Public Affairs, Mamduh Shevket Bey, Plenipotentiary Representative of Turkey in Azerbaijan. The Government of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic: Yakov Ganetsky, Plenipotentiary Representative in Latvia, after an exchange of powers duly and legally, agreed on the following:

 

Article 1.

The Government of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and the Socialist Soviet Republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia have annulled the above-mentioned territorial agreements between the former Soviet Union and the Transcaucasian Republic and have lost their force. It is established that this article does not apply to the Turkish-Russian agreement signed in Moscow on March 16, 1921.

 

Article 2.

The Contracting Parties agree not to recognize any peace treaty or other international instrument to which one of them is compelled to ratify. As a result, the Socialist Soviet Republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia agree not to recognize any international act concerning Turkey that is not recognized by the Turkish National Government, which is currently represented in the Grand National Assembly. (This agreement includes the territories included in the Misaki-National Border of Turkey dated January 8, 1920 (1336), developed and declared by the Ottoman Chamber of Deputies in Constantinople under the concept of Turkey and delivered to all states in the press). For its part, the Government of the Turkish Grand National Assembly agrees not to recognize any international act that is not recognized by the respective Governments of these countries, currently represented by the Soviets of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia.

 

Article 3

The governments of the Socialist Soviet Republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, considering that the surrender regime is incompatible with the free national aspirations of any country, as well as the full exercise of its sovereign rights, have invalidated and abolished any action or right related to this regime that they consider to be finished.

Article 4.

Turkey's northeastern border (at 1/21000 scale of the Russian General Staff - 5 versts per inch) runs from the village of Sarp in the Black Sea, through Mount Hedis-Mta, through the Kanni-Dag junction on Mount Shavshet, and then along the old northern administrative boundaries of the Ardahan and Kars pins. It is defined by a line passing through the Arpa-Chay and Araz rivers to the mouth of the Lower Kars-Suyu. (Detailed description of the borders and related issues are set out in Annexes 1 and 2, signed by both parties to the agreement, and on the map attached to it). If there is a difference between the text of the agreement and the map, the text has critical significance. Detailed demarcation and drawing of state borders in nature, as well as the marking of borders, shall be carried out by a mixed border commission of an equal number of members of the Contracting Parties and with the participation of representatives of the RSFSR. Appendix 4: map.

Article 5

The Government of Turkey and the Governments of Soviet Armenia and Azerbaijan agree that Nakhchivan Province shall establish an autonomous territory under the auspices of Azerbaijan within the boundaries set out in Annex 3 to this Agreement.

Article 6

Turkey agrees to cede its sovereignty over the city and port of Batumi and the territories north of the borders specified in Article 4 of this Treaty and form part of the Batumi Circle to Georgia on the condition that: from the administrative point of view, it will benefit from broad local autonomy and the population will be given the opportunity to determine the land law in accordance with its wishes in the specified places; 2) All goods sent to Turkey by the port of Batumi or sent by Turkey will be given the right of free transit duty-free, without any delays and any customs duties, and Turkey will be given the right to use the port of Batumi without any special duties. A commission consisting of representatives of the Contracting Parties shall be established immediately after the signing of this Agreement for the implementation of this Article.

Article 7

The Government of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Government of the Turkish Parliament agree to facilitate the crossing of the border by the residents of the border area, subject to compliance with the customs, police and sanitary rules to be determined by the joint commission.

Article 8

The governments of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Turkish Grand National Assembly agree on the right of both sides to cross the border and use their traditional pastures with their herds, taking into account the need for residents of both sides of the border to use pastures and winter pastures on the other side of the border. . Customs rules, as well as police, sanitary and other measures for crossing the border will be determined by a joint commission.

Article 9

In order to open the channels and ensure the free passage of trade for all peoples, Turkey and Georgia agree to submit a definitive definition of the international status of the Black Sea and channels to a special conference of coastal states on the condition that its decisions will not harm the security of Constantinople.

Article 10

The Contracting Parties agree to prevent the creation or establishment of organizations and groups claiming the role of the government of another country in their territories, as well as the establishment of groups intended to fight another state. It is established that the territory of Turkey referred to in this agreement means the territories, which are directly under the military and civilian control of the Government of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.

Article 11

Citizens of both Contracting Parties in the territory of the other Contracting Party shall be exempt from all rights and obligations arising from the laws of the host country, except for national defense obligations. Issues related to the family law of both parties, the right of inheritance and working capacity of citizens of both parties are also exceptions to the decisions of this agreement. They will be resolved by a special agreement.

Article 12

Both Contracting Parties agree to apply the principle of the most favorable conditions to the citizens of each Contracting Party in the territory of the other Contracting Party. This article does not apply to the rights granted by the Soviet republics to the citizens of the allied Soviet republics in their territories, as well as to the rights granted by Turkey to the citizens of the Muslim countries allied to it.

Article 13

Any inhabitant of the territories that were part of Russia before 1918 and are now recognized as Turkish sovereignty has the right to leave Turkey freely, taking with them their belongings, property or its value, if they wish. In the same way, all residents of the territories whose sovereignty has been granted to Georgia by Turkey have the right to renounce Georgian citizenship, to leave the territory of Georgia freely and to take with them their belongings and property or their value, if they wish. Residents referred to in the above article will be entitled to deferment of military service for one month after expressing their desire to leave the mentioned areas.

Article 14

The Contracting Parties undertake to conclude a special agreement on the refugees of the 1918-1920 wars within six months of the signing of this agreement.

Article 15

Each Contracting Party undertakes to declare a full amnesty for the citizens of the other Party for crimes and acts arising from military actions on the Caucasus front immediately after the signing of this agreement.

Article 16

The Contracting Parties agree to return former prisoners of war and civilian prisoners in the territory of one of the Contracting Parties within two months of the signing of this Agreement.

Article 17

In order to ensure the continuity of relations between their countries, the parties agreed to establish a railway, telegraph, etc. by mutual agreement. Undertake to take all necessary measures to maintain and develop the means of communication as rapidly as possible and to ensure the free movement of people and goods between the two countries without any delay. However, it is acknowledged that the rules set out in each country will apply to both travelers and the movement, entry and exit of goods.

Article 18

In order to strengthen friendly relations between the parties, a commission consisting of representatives of interested parties will be established in Tbilisi immediately after the signing of this agreement in order to establish trade relations and regulate all economic, financial and other issues.

Article 19

The Contracting Parties undertake to complete the Consular Convention within three months of the signing of this Agreement.

Article 20

This agreement between the governments of Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia must be ratified. The exchange of ratifications will take place in Yerevan as soon as possible. This Agreement shall enter into force upon ratification. Exceptions 6, 14, 15, 16, 18 and 19 shall enter into force immediately after the signing of the contract. To confirm this, the above-mentioned commissioners signed the agreement and affixed their seals to it.

Done at Kars on October 13, 1921 (1337) in five copies.

 

(M. Y.) signature. Askanaz Mravian,

(M. Y.) signature. Kazim Karabekir

(M. Y.) signature. Poqos Makinzian

(M. Y.) signature. Vali Bey

(M. Y.) signature. Behbud Shakhtakhtinski

(M. Y.) signature. Mukhtar Bey

(M. Y.) signature. Shalva Eliava

(M. Y.) signature. Mamduh Shevket Bey

(M. Y.) signature. Alexander Svanidze

(M. Y.) signature. Ganetski.

 

Appendix 1. The north-eastern border of Turkey is defined as follows: (according to the map of the Russian headquarters at 1/210000 - 5 versts per inch). In the Black Sea, Sarp village - Gara Shalvar mountain (5014) - crosses the river Chorokhu north of V. Maradidi village north of V. Maradidi village and then passes north of Sabur village - Hedis Mta mountain (7052) - Kva-Kibe mountain - Kavtereti village - Medzibna mountain dividing line - Gerat Kesun mountain (6468) - crossing the dividing line of Korda mountain (7910) - Shavshet goes to the administrative boundary of Artvin circle in the western part of the mountains - passing through the dividing line of Shavshet mountains Sari Chay (Kar-Issal) (8478) - Kviral pass - from there to the former administrative boundary of the former Ardahan district on Mount Kanky - from there it turns north to Mount Tlil (Grmali) - along the same border of the Ardahan district to the north-east of the village Badela, to the river Poshkhov and goes to the mountain in the village - there it leaves the river behind - it goes along the line and goes to Ayrılan-Bash mountain (8512) - Kalla tepe (8463), Karman tepe (9709 ) passes through the mountains - reaches Kasris-Seri mountain (9681) - from here it goes to Karzamet river and Kura river - from there it goes to the settlement east of Kartanakev village along the Kura river - there to Garaoglu mountain (7. 259) crosses the Kura River - from there it divides Lake Khazapin into two parts and rises to the height of 7582, from there to Goydag (9152) - Uchtapa (9783), where the border with Georgia ends and the border with Armenia begins: Taya-Gala (9716) - 9065 peak, where the border It leaves the former boundary of the Ardahan district and goes from Boyuk Agbaba Mountain (9973 or 9963) - 8828 or 8827 - 7602 - from here in a straight line to the summit of 7. 518 - east of Ibish village, then from Gizildash Mountain (7. 439 or 7. 440, or 7. 490), passes through the village of Yeni Gazildash - from there it flows through the river Noviy Gizildash to its north-western bend from Garamammad - from there it goes to the river Jamushchu east of the villages Delaver, B. Kmli and Tikinis - passes through the villages Vartanli and Bash Shuragel - name it goes to the Arpa River north of Kalala or Galali by the drawn river - there it always goes to the Araz by the Arve-Chal Talvegi and by the Araz Talvegi it goes to the village of Urmia, where it borders Armenia. The border with Azerbaijan ends - it goes to the place where the Lower Garasu flows into it with the talvegi of the Araz, and here the border with Azerbaijan ends). N. B. It is clear that the boundary passes through the divisor of the indicated heights.

 

(M. Y.) signature. Askanaz Mravian

(M. Y.) signature. Kazim Karabekir

(M. Y.) signature. Poqos Makinzian

(M. Y.) signature. Vali Bey

(M. Y.) signature. Behbud Shakhtakhtinski

(M. Y.) signature. Mukhtar Bey

(M. Y.) signature. Shalva Eliava

(M. Y.) signature. Mamduh Shevket Bey

(M. Y.) signature. Alexander Svanidze

(M. Y.) signature. Ganetski

 

Appendix 2. Considering that the border line crosses the Arpa-Chay and Araz rivers, as shown in Appendix 1, the Turkish Grand National Assembly recommends that the blockchain line in the Arpachay region be withdrawn only 8 versts from the Alexandropol-Yerevan railway. Undertakes to withdraw 4 versts from the line. The lines delimiting the above-mentioned districts are shown below in points A and B for the Arpachay zone and in points 2 for the Araz zone. 1. Arpachay zone A) South-east of Vartanli - east of Uzun Kilis, passing through Bozyar mountain (5. 096) - east of Karmir-vank 5082 - 5047, Uchtapa (6478 or 5578) - east of Arazoglu - west of Ani - east of Yenikoy reaches. B) Again, it turns yellow from Arpachay to the east of 5019 altitude - goes directly to 5481 altitude - 4 1/2 versts east of Gizilgula - 2 versts east of Bocali - then Digorchay - along this river to Duzkechid village and goes north in a straight line from Karabakh ruins to Arpachay. II. Araz zone is a straight line between Kharaba Alican and Suleyman Diza villages. The Government of the Turkish Grand National Assembly has undertaken not to build any fortifications in the area bordered by the Alexandropol-Yerevan railway on the one hand and the lines eight and four versts from the above-mentioned railway on the other. (this distance line is outside the specified zone) and will not keep regular troops in them, but it reserves the right to maintain troops in the specified zones for law and order, security and administrative needs.

 

(M. Y.) signature. Askanaz Mravian

(M. Y.) signature. Kazim Karabekir

(M. Y.) signature. Poqos Makinzian

(M. Y.) signature. Vali bey

(M. Y.) signature. Behbud Shakhtakhtinski

(M. Y.) signature. Mukhtar bey

(M. Y.) signature. Shalva Eliava

(M. Y.) signature. Mamduh Shevket bey

(M. Y.) signature. Alexander Svanidze

(M. Y.) signature. Ganetski

 

Appendix 3. The territory of Nakhchivan - Urmiya village - from there to Arazdayan station (keeping it to the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic) - then in a straight line to 3142 west to Dashburun mountain - the eastern dividing line of Dashburun mountain (4108) - from the river of Hell gorge along the Gadik line (6607 or 6587) and the administrative boundary of the previous Iravan district and Sharur-Daralayaz district - 6629 height - Komurlu mountain (6839 or 6930) - from there 3080 height - Sayat mountain (7868 - Kurdgulag village) Gamesur mountain Height (8160) - 8022 - Kuku mountain (10282) and passes east of the administrative boundary of the former Nakhchivan district.

(M. Y.) signature. Askanaz Mravian

(M. Y.) signature. Kazim Garabakir

(M. Y.) signature. Poqos Makinzian

(M. Y.) signature. Vali bey

(M. Y.) signature. Behbud Shakhtakhtinski

(M. Y.) signature. Customer Mr.

(M. Y.) signature. Shalva Eliava

(M. Y.) signature. Mamduh Shevket bey

(M. Y.) signature. Alexander Svanidze

(M. Y.) signature. Ganetski

The treaty was ratified by the All-Union Central Executive Committee on March 16, 1922.